1483
Global
Height rank

Marina Bay Sands Hotel Tower 1

Singapore
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

206.9 m / 679 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

206.9 m / 679 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

193.9 m / 636 ft
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

57
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3
1 2 3 Marina Bay Sands Hotel Tower 1 Outline
Height 206.9 m / 679 ft
Floors 57
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Marina Bay Sands Hotel Tower 1

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort - Hotel Tower 1

Name of Complex
A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

Marina Bay Sands

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2010

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Singapore

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Singapore

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Concrete Encased Steel
Floor Spanning
Reinforced Concrete
Official Website

Marina Bay Sands

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

206.9 m / 679 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
206.9 m / 679 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
193.9 m / 636 ft
Observatory
193.9 m / 636 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

57

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

22

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

8 m/s

Rankings
#
1483
Tallest in the World
#
31
Tallest in Singapore
#
31
Tallest in Singapore
#
52
Tallest Hotel Building in the World
#
35
Tallest Hotel Building in Asia
#
2
Tallest Hotel Building in Singapore
#
2
Tallest Hotel Building in Singapore
#
493
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
406
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
9
Tallest Composite Building in Singapore
#
9
Tallest Composite Building in Singapore
Construction Schedule
2005

Proposed

2006

Construction Start

2010

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Acoustics
Civil
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Geotechnical
Quantity Surveyor
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Elevator
Paint/Coating
Owner/Developer
Marina Bay Sands Pte Ltd.; Las Vegas Sands Corporation
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Peer Review

The Peer Review Engineer traditionally comments on the information produced by another party, and to render second opinions, but not to initiate what the design looks like from the start.

T.Y. Lin international
MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Las Vegas Sands Corporation
Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

JFE Engineering Corporation; Lian Beng Group; Ssangyong Engineering & Construction
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Acoustics
Artist
Simmonds Studio; James Carpenter Design Associates; Anthony Gormley; Ned Kahn Studios; Sol LeWitt; Zheng Chongbin Studio
Civil
Arup; T.Y. Lin international
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Geotechnical
Interiors
CL3 Architects Ltd; Rockwell Group; Fisher Dachs Associates, Inc.; Hirsch Bedner Associates
Landscape
Howard Fields & Associates, International; Peridian Asia Pte Ltd; PWP Landscape Architecture
Lighting
Laservision; Spectra Lighting; Project Lighting Design Pte. Ltd.
Quantity Surveyor
Roofing
STRUTS Building Technology Pte Ltd.; Alfasi Group; GRP Roofing; Kalzip GmbH
Stormwater Management
Fast Flow Systems Pte Ltd
Way Finding
Pentagram; King Wah Engineering Co. Ltd.
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Alfasi Group; Benson Industries, Inc.; Prime Structures Engineering Pte Ltd.; Stelatex (Holding) Pte Ltd.; Shanghai Yaohua Pilkington Glass Group Co.,Ltd.; Singapore Safety Glass Pte Ltd; Cardinal Glass Industries, Inc; HALFEN; JORDAHL; Jangho Group Co., Ltd.
Concrete
KTC Group; Yongnam Holdings Limited; Yau Lee Group; Ssangyong Engineering & Construction
Elevator
Flooring
Artebuild (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.; Engareh Sdn. Bhd.; Tai Ping Carpets International Limited
Hardware
Technal; Fabristeel Pte Ltd; Lip Chee Engineering Pte. Ltd.
HVAC
Shin Nippon Lanka (Pvt) Ltd.
Lighting
United Engineers Limited; Gexpro
Paint/Coating
KEIM Mineral Coatings of America, Inc.; AkzoNobel; Jotun
Plumbing
OSK Engineering Pte. Ltd
Sealants
General Electric; Dow Corning Corporation
Steel
JFE Steel Corporation; Yongnam Holdings Limited; AME Research

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2010 Award of Excellence

2010 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

Marina Bay Sands Chosen as Featured Building

15 March 2011 - Featured Building

Singapore Visit

12 August 2009 - Event

Videos

31 October 2019 | Singapore

The Garden City in Three Dimensions

Moshe Safdie, Founder at Safdie Architects, speaks at the 2019 CTBUH International Congress in Chicago on 31 October 2019.

Research

30 January 2020

Tall Building Predictions for 2020

CTBUH Research

The combined brains of the CTBUH editorial and database staff boldly predict what might happen across the global skyscraper industry in 2020. Check out our...

About Marina Bay Sands Hotel Tower 1

Marina Bay Sands is a high-density, mixed-use integrated resort that brings together a 2,560-room hotel, a SkyPark, convention center, shopping and dining, theaters, museum, and a casino across the water from Singapore’s central business district. The 929,000 sq m (10,000,000 sq ft) urban district anchors the Singapore waterfront, and creates a gateway to Singapore. The design approach for the complex was not as a building project, but as a microcosm of a city—rooted in Singapore’s culture, climate and contemporary life. The aim was to create an urban landscape capable of addressing the issue of megascale.

The project is designed as an urban structure that weaves together the components of a complex program into a dynamic urban crossroads and public meeting place. Inspired by great ancient cities that were ordered around a vital public thoroughfare, Marina Bay Sands is organized around two principal axes that traverse the district and give it a sense of orientation placing emphasis on the pedestrian street as the focus of civic life. Combining indoor and outdoor spaces and providing a platform for a wide array of activities, this vibrant, 21st-century cardo maximus, or grand arcade, also connects to the subway and other transportation. A series of layered gardens provide ample green space throughout the site, extending the tropical garden landscape from Marina City Park towards the Bayfront. The landscape network reinforces urban connections with the resort’s surroundings and every level of the district has green space that is accessible to the public.

The most innovative aspect of Marina Bay Sands, both conceptually and technically, is the 1 hectare (2.5 acre) SkyPark atop the hotel towers. Locating the park and hotel amenities at 200m (656ft) above the sea afforded the architect the ability to keep the majority of the project relatively low in height. The three towers anchor the district and are connected at the top by the SkyPark—an engineering marvel that is longer than the Eiffel Tower is tall and large enough to park four-and-a-half A380 jumbo jets. The 65m (213ft) cantilever of the SkyPark past the third hotel tower forms one of the world’s largest public cantilevers.

The SkyPark accommodates a public observatory, gardens, a 151 meter-long (495 foot-long) swimming pool, restaurants, and jogging paths and offers sweeping panoramic views, a formidable resource in a dense city like Singapore. Shielded from the winds and lavishly planted with hundreds of trees, the SkyPark celebrates the notion of the Garden City that has been the underpinning of Singapore’s urban design strategy.

A post-tensioned box girder was designed to achieve this incredible cantilever. The maximum depth of the box girder is 10m (33ft) at the end support from the hotel tower and generally 3.5m (11ft) deep. The lifting of the SkyPark was one of the many challenges that the project faced that required an innovative approach to the construction methods in order to facilitate one of the highest strand jacking operations ever undertaken.

The hotel towers on which the SkyPark sits has an unusual and spectacular form that creates its distinct silhouette. Each tower is formed by two curved and splayed legs that lean into one another as they rise, ultimately becoming one at the upper levels. At the ground level, the space between each tower is enclosed to create a hotel lobby and atrium, at the upper levels the space is conceived as an “urban window” that allows for views through the project. Major steel trusses form a connection between the separate segments of the building’s legs to provide a frame to transfer sheer between the towers and tie the buildings together to resist lateral forces.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2010 Award of Excellence

2010 CTBUH Awards

31 October 2019 | Singapore

The Garden City in Three Dimensions

Moshe Safdie, Founder at Safdie Architects, speaks at the 2019 CTBUH International Congress in Chicago on 31 October 2019.

30 October 2017 | Singapore

Quay Quarter Tower: Humanizing the High-Rise

Quay Quarter Tower (QQT) will create a stunning new building on the Sydney skyline that sets new benchmarks in office tower design globally and creates...

03 November 2016 | Singapore

Shaping Singapore: Planning, Design and Technology Innovation

Dr. Cheong Koon Hean is an architect and urban planner who has been credited with shaping much of Singapore’s urban landscape. Throughout her career, she...

26 October 2015 | Singapore

Interview: Moshe Safdie

Moshe Safdie of Safdie Architects is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2015 CTBUH New York Conference at the Grand Hyatt New York. Moshe discusses...

12 October 2011 | Singapore

Slopping Structure of Marina Bay Sands Hotel Project

The Marina Bay Sands Hotel is a landmark project in Singapore. It's unique with 2,561 rooms its more than just big. Three 55 story high...

10 October 2011 | Singapore

Construction CEO’s Experience in the Construction of Raffles City Complex & Marina Bay Sands Hotel

A construction CEO will share his vivid experience of overcoming challenges in the construction of Raffles City Complex and Marina Bay Sands Hotel in Singapore....

30 January 2020

Tall Building Predictions for 2020

CTBUH Research

The combined brains of the CTBUH editorial and database staff boldly predict what might happen across the global skyscraper industry in 2020. Check out our...

30 January 2020

Tall Buildings’ Lower Public Spaces: Impact on Health and Behavior

Yu Ye, Zhendong Wang, Nannan Dong & Xihui Zhou, Tongji University

Tall buildings unquestionably need to improve their impact on the urban habitat. A human-focused approach to measuring the social impact of tall buildings’ ground conditions,...

11 October 2019

The Garden City in Three Dimensions

Moshe Safdie, Safdie Architects

With a career spanning back to the Habitat ’67 residential complex in Montréal, Moshe Safdie’s work has always evoked images of utopian science fiction, yet...

21 June 2019

Cities in the Sky: Elevating Singapore's Urban Spaces

Swinal Samant, National University of Singapore

Singapore has seen a phenomenal and an unprecedented transformation from a swampland to a high density urban environment since its independence in 1965, made possible...

14 March 2019

Conjoined Tower Structures for Mile-High Tall Buildings

Kyoung Sun Moon, Yale University

Tall buildings are one of the most viable solutions to deal with the global phenomenon of rapid population increase and urbanization. While tall buildings are...

14 March 2019

Tall Buildings as Urban Habitats: A Quantitative Approach for Measuring Social Impacts of Tall Buildings

Xihui Zhou & Yu Ye & Zhendong Wang, Tongji University

After decades of high-speed development, designing tall buildings as critical components of urban habitat, rather than simply standing aloof from their environments, has become an...

14 March 2019

The Evolution of the SkyPark Since the Marina Bay Sands

Jaron Lubin, Safdie Architects

This presentation traces the evolution of the SkyPark across multiple building types in different cities, climates and contexts from urban, architectural and social perspectives.

08 August 2017

Ten Significant Tall Buildings, and the Significant Women Behind Them

Leading Women in Tall Buildings

Recently, there has been a growing and overdue recognition in the architecture discipline that women are under-represented, not just in terms of leadership positions held,...

17 October 2016

The Space Between: Urban Spaces Surrounding Tall Buildings

James Parakh, City of Toronto Planning Division

This paper is intended to introduce the upcoming CTBUH technical guide titled “The Space Between,” which investigates the importance of publicly accessible spaces surrounding tall...

04 February 2016

The Other Side of Tall Buildings: The Urban Habitat

Daniel Safarik, CTBUH

A growing number of tall buildings recognized by the CTBUH, through its international awards programs and research, are noteworthy not so much because of their...

15 March 2011

Marina Bay Sands Chosen as Featured Building

The 929,000-square meter Marina Bay Sands is conceived as not just a mere building project, but as a city microcosm rooted in Singapore’s culture, climate, and contemporary life.

14 August 2009

Singapore Visit

Executive Director Antony Wood shares his recent experiences of a new and exciting Singapore which has, in a quiet, unpretentious way, been implementing social-urban policies.