74
Global
Height rank

875 North Michigan Avenue

Chicago
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

456.9 m / 1,499 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

343.7 m / 1,128 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

321.3 m / 1,054 ft
1 2 3 875 North Michigan Avenue Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

100
Height 343.7 m / 1,128 ft
Floors 100
Official Name
The current legal building name.

875 North Michigan Avenue

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Big John, 175 East Delaware Place, John Hancock Center

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed, 1969

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

United States

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Chicago

Postal Code

60611

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

residential / office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel

Official Website

360 Chicago John Hancock Center

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

343.7 m / 1,128 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
456.9 m / 1,499 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
321.3 m / 1,054 ft
Observatory
313.8 m / 1,030 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

100

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

717

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

50

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

9.2 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

260,126 m² / 2,799,973 ft²

Rankings
#
74
Tallest in the World
#
12
Tallest in North America
#
12
Tallest in United States
#
5
Tallest in Chicago
#
35
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
3
Tallest Mixed-use Building in North America
#
3
Tallest Mixed-use Building in United States
#
3
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Chicago
#
7
Tallest Steel Building in the World
#
5
Tallest Steel Building in North America
#
5
Tallest Steel Building in United States
#
3
Tallest Steel Building in Chicago
Construction Schedule
1965

Construction Start

1969

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Steel
Owner
Current
Hearn Company; Mount Kellett Capital Management; The Lynd Company
Past
Golub & Company; John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.; Shorenstein Company, LP; Whitehall Street Real Estate Fund
Developer
Jerry Wolman Associates; John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Property Management
Sudler Property Management
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Fire Proofing
Grace Construction Products
Steel
American Bridge Company; Arbed

Retrofit Companies Involved

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Riggio / Boron

CTBUH Initiatives

Videos

07 November 2013 | Chicago

Interview: Fazlur Khan Winner: Clyde Baker

Clyde N. Baker, Jr., Fazlur R. Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal Winner, discusses his lifetime work as a geotechnical engineer including working on 7 of the...

Research

25 June 2020

Curtain Wall Façades on the New Generation of Supertall Buildings Present and Future Directions

Sae Hwang Oh, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Beginning in the late 19th century, construction of skyscrapers spread throughout Chicago, New York City, and then the world as demand of space in buildings...

Global News

29 July 2019

Elevator Malfunctions Continue in Chicago Skyscraper

A group of people on floor 96 of the former John Hancock Center in Chicago became entrapped on their elevator to the ground floor over...

About 875 North Michigan Avenue

Over forty years after completion, the 875 North Michigan Avenue has established itself as one of the world’s most recognized skyscrapers and an iconic example of late twentieth century Chicago design, construction, and engineering. The building’s structural, programmatic, and architectural innovations combine to create a design that is heralded for its elegant simplicity.

As one of the world’s first mixed-use tall building projects, the John Hancock Center design was influential in its internal organization. The complex programmatic design placed commercial space on a sub-level concourse and the first five levels. This was followed by levels of parking, office, residential, and finally dining, observation, and broadcasting facilities.

The architecture of the tower is informed by its expressive structural system and gently sloping façades. This innovative form was designed to efficiently accommodate the variety of uses contained in the building. The gentle inward slope creates optimally-sized floor plans for both the lower parking and office levels and the higher residential floors. Additionally, the tapered form significantly reduces wind loads, allowing for a reduction in the size of structural members. For Chicago’s busy streetscape, the building’s shape increases the visual verticality of the building; adding perceived height to an already impressively tall tower.

The architectural form of the 875 North Michigan Avenue represents a radical departure from established aesthetics of the time. Initially, critics labeled the building as too industrial, but over time it has come to symbolize the gutsy tradition of structural expression in Chicago. It is often characterized as super-rational, logical, and a representation of the machine age of architecture. It exhibits its true structure much in the tradition of bridge construction. These qualities are at the heart of why the building has endured in the minds of so many.

07 November 2013 | Chicago

Interview: Fazlur Khan Winner: Clyde Baker

Clyde N. Baker, Jr., Fazlur R. Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal Winner, discusses his lifetime work as a geotechnical engineer including working on 7 of the...

20 September 2012 | Chicago

Interview: Management of Tall Buildings

Tony Long of CBRE is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. Tony talks about the management...

03 March 2008 | Chicago

Material-Saving Design Strategies for Tall Building Structures

Kyoung Sun Moon from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign discussed stiffness-based design methodologies for tall building structures at the CTBUH 8th World Congress in...

25 June 2020

Curtain Wall Façades on the New Generation of Supertall Buildings Present and Future Directions

Sae Hwang Oh, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Beginning in the late 19th century, construction of skyscrapers spread throughout Chicago, New York City, and then the world as demand of space in buildings...

11 October 2019

CTBUH 2019 Congress Special

On the 50th anniversary of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat’s founding, the CTBUH 10th World Congress returns to the Council’s home: Chicago....

11 October 2019

Tall Buildings in Numbers: 50 Years of Tall Building Evolution

CTBUH Research

The default image of the skyscraper for the past 50 years in the public imagination has likely been the extruded, rectilinear corporate “box,” derived from...

01 March 2018

Dynamic Interrelationship between the Evolution of the Structural Systems and Façade Design in Tall Buildings

Kyoung Sun Moon, Yale University School of Architecture

The emergence of tall buildings in the late 19th century was possible by using new materials and separating the role of structures and that of...

01 December 2016

An Overview of Structural & Aesthetic Developments in Tall Buildings Using Exterior Bracing & Diagrid Systems

Kheir Al-Kodmany, University of Illinois; Mir M. Ali, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

There is much architectural and engineering literature which discusses the virtues of exterior bracing and diagrid systems in regards to sustainability - two systems which...

01 December 2016

The Rational Optimization and Evolution of the Structural Diagonal Aesthetic in Supertall Towers

Charles Besjak, Preetam Biswas & Tobias Fast, SOM

In the design of supertall towers, engineers often find the conventional frame systems used in countless buildings in the past decades incapable of providing the...

24 August 2015

World’s Highest Observation Decks

CTBUH Research

Perhaps no element of a tall building is more closely related to the pure pleasure of standing high in the sky and taking in the...

01 February 2000

Reflections on the Hancock Concept

Hal Iyengar, Skimore, Owings & Merril

This paper reviews the stages of conceptual design through the final design of the John Hancock Center in Chicago. Several unique features of the project...

12 September 2019

Members of the original architecture and engineering team behind Chicago’s John Hancock Center shared the story of the creation of one of the city’s best-known landmarks.

28 March 2019

"CTBUH 50th Anniversary: Moments in History #3" explores the impact that CTBUH Chairman Fazlur R. Khan, partner, Skidmore Owings & Merrill, had on the tall building industry.

22 January 2019

Check out our monthly predictions based on our industry intelligence to see what trends and milestones will shape the industry in the year to come!

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

29 May 2015

EMI Lead Chicago Tall-Building Study Trip

A group of 20 Belgian real estate professionals traveled to Chicago from May 25-29 to visit several tall buildings, and related developments as part of a CTBUH Belgium study trip.

1 March 2011

The John Hancock Center Chosen as Featured Building

Over forty years after its completion, the John Hancock Center has established itself as one of the world’s most recognized skyscrapers and an iconic example.

21 October 2009

John Hancock Center Tour

Attendees of the 2009 CTBUH Chicago Conference were lead by Brian Keaty through the entirety of Chicago's famous John Hancock Center.