461 Dean

New York City
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

109.4 m / 359 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

109.4 m / 359 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

95.1 m / 312 ft
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

32
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

2
1 2 3 461 Dean Outline
Height 109.4 m / 359 ft
Floors 32
Official Name
The current legal building name.

461 Dean

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

461 Dean Street, Brooklyn B2

Name of Complex
A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

Pacific Park

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2016

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

United States

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

New York City

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

residential

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel

Official Website

461 Dean

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

109.4 m / 359 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
109.4 m / 359 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
95.1 m / 312 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

32

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

2

# of Apartments
Number of Apartments refers to the total number of residential units (including both rental units and condominiums) contained within a particular building.

363

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

4

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

32,164 m² / 346,210 ft²

Construction Schedule
2013

Construction Start

2016

Completed

2017

Proposed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Geotechnical
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Owner/Developer
Forest City Ratner Companies
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Access
J. Supor & Son Trucking & Rigging Co.
Geotechnical
Roofing
Metropolitan
Vertical Transportation
Fujitec America, Inc.
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Ceiling
Island Diversified, Inc.
Cladding
MG McGrath Architectural Surfaces
Façade Maintenance Equipment
R&R Scaffolding
HVAC
Aspro
Steel
Banker Steel Company

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Construction Award 2018 Award of Excellence

2018 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

CTBUH New York Chapter Event Focuses on Modular Construction

16 November 2017 - Event

Top 12 Happenings of 2016, Month-by-Month

19 December 2016 - CTBUH News

Videos

31 May 2018 | New York City

Delivering the World’s Tallest Volumetric Modular Apartment Building

461 Dean is the world’s tallest volumetric modular apartment building. Its success hinged on careful pre-planning of construction activities, as well as the introduction of...

Research

08 August 2017

ASPECT: RATIOS – Voices of Women In the Tall Building World

Ilkay Can-Standard, GenX Design & Technology; Martina Dolejsova, Studio Libeskind

ASPECT: RATIOS is the outgrowth of a program developed by the CTBUH Young Professionals Committee in New York, beginning in 2016. The purpose of the...

About 461 Dean

461 Dean Street is a residential development in the Pacific Park neighborhood of Brooklyn. 461 Dean Street is built with modular construction consisting of 930 steel modules. It has 363 rental apartments, 50 percent of the units will be affordable to low- and middle- income households, and has 4,000 square-feet delegated to retail at its base.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Construction Award 2018 Award of Excellence

2018 CTBUH Awards

31 May 2018 | New York City

Delivering the World’s Tallest Volumetric Modular Apartment Building

461 Dean is the world’s tallest volumetric modular apartment building. Its success hinged on careful pre-planning of construction activities, as well as the introduction of...

19 September 2012 | New York City

Interview: Leadenhall Building

David Scott of Laing O'Rourke is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. David talks about prefabrication...

08 August 2017

ASPECT: RATIOS – Voices of Women In the Tall Building World

Ilkay Can-Standard, GenX Design & Technology; Martina Dolejsova, Studio Libeskind

ASPECT: RATIOS is the outgrowth of a program developed by the CTBUH Young Professionals Committee in New York, beginning in 2016. The purpose of the...

08 August 2017

Ten Significant Tall Buildings, and the Significant Women Behind Them

Leading Women in Tall Buildings

Recently, there has been a growing and overdue recognition in the architecture discipline that women are under-represented, not just in terms of leadership positions held,...

20 April 2017

Modular High-Rise: The Next Chapter

Roger Krulak, Full Stack Modular

In 2016, 461 Dean Street, the world’s tallest volumetric modular building, was completed in New York City (see Figure 1). As few such projects had...

26 October 2015

Apartments in Skyscrapers: Innovations and Perspectives of their Typology Development

Elena Generalova & Viktor Generalov, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

The paper proposes to reflect on the questions: what does the typology of apartments in contemporary high-rise construction mean and whether it is consistent with...

22 October 2015

Perspectives on the Skyscraper City

New York 2015 Conference Special

To commemorate the CTBUH 2015 International Conference, some of the most prominent voices in the New York tall building industry today – all of whom...

31 December 2014

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2014

Daniel Safarik, Antony Wood, Marty Carver & Marshall Gerometta, CTBUH

An All-Time Record 97 Buildings of 200 Meters or Higher Completed in 2014 and 2014 showed further shifts towards Asia, and also surprising developments in...

16 September 2014

Modular Tall Building Design at Atlantic Yards B2

David Farnsworth, ARUP

The Atlantic Yards B2 Modular Residential Tower will be the tallest volumetric modular building in the world when completed in early 2015. In January 2011,...

14 September 2014

Towards Sustainable Vertical Urbanism

Daniel Safarik, CTBUH

The survival of humanity on this planet relies on a radical repositioning of our cities. In the face of unprecedented global population growth, urbanization, pollution...

16 November 2017

CTBUH New York Chapter Event Focuses on Modular Construction

The CTBUH New York Chapter held an event focused on modular construction, which was hosted by FullStack Modular at its factory in Brooklyn.

19 December 2016

Top 12 Happenings of 2016, Month-by-Month

Check out the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's top stories of 2016 for each month and take a look ahead with the Council’s monthly predictions for 2017.

9 June 2016

Future of Construction: Manufacturing Buildings

The CTBUH New York Chapter in collaboration with the CTBUH Young Professionals Committee held the first of its lecture series, “Future of Construction.”

28 October 2015

CTBUH 2015 delegates toured 461 Dean Street Factory which will be the World's tallest modular building containing 930 modules made up of 225 designs.

28 October 2015

CTBUH 2015 delegates toured City Point Complex, Barclays Center, and 461 Dean Street which have impacted the cityscape of Brooklyn.

31 December 2014

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2014

An All-Time Record 97 Buildings of 200 Meters or Higher Completed in 2014 and 2014 showed further shifts towards Asia, and also surprising developments in building functions and structural materials.

11 October 2013

World Architecture Day Prefab Panel Debates on “Factory-Made”

CTBUH Executive Director Antony Wood led a panel focused on the exigencies of pre-fabrication and modular construction.

1 October 2013

New York’s New Delirium

At least five once-in-a-lifetime multi-acre projects are underway in New York. CTBUH Editor Daniel Safarik reports on his journey to investigate further.

24 July 2013

Atlantic Yards B2 – Modular on the Rise

It seems increasingly evident that 2013 will be remembered as The Year of Prefab in the tall-building community. At 32 stories, B2 promises to become the tallest modular building.